Comparison between the Khilafa in the view of the Sahabah and between the view of the followers of Bagdhadi

From the book entitled “The Stance of Tehreek Taliban Pakistan towards the announced Khilafa of Abu Bakr al Baghdadi”

Introduction To This Treatise

This is an article prepared by the leadership advisory council of the Pakistani Taliban Movement in the light of the pure texts and transmissions from the Quran and the Sunnah and the consensus of the Ummah which leads to the following conclusions:

  1. Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi, (the original Arabic version of this book has in it “may Allah assist him against the Zionist Crusader Rafidhi alliance”) is not a Khalifa of the Muslims. And based on that, there is no need to give Bay’ah to him. And consequently, the one who has not given him the Bay’ah as a Khalifa of the Muslims is not to be considered as a rebel and his death is not to be considered as a death in Jaahiliya.
  2. Applying the Hadiths that have been narrated about the Khalifa over the so called Khilafa of Baghdadi is a distortion of the meaning of these Hadiths.
  3. The predecessors of this Ummah have given us the dimensions of the Khilafa in a clear elegant manner, and in an appealing and graceful form in the light of the Quran and the Sunnah. And hence, granting legitimacy to the so called Khilafa of Baghdadi and making Bay’ah to it as a necessary obligation over the Ummah, is a view point that contradicts the Aqeedah of the Ahlu Sunnah and goes against the actions of the Sahabah and the Khulafa ur Rashideen and their beliefs. In addition to that, the so called Khilafa of Baghdadi is an innovation in ideology that has no similarity in the past.
  4. Islam is a comprehensive religion based on the saying of Allah, “Today I have perfected for you your religion”. Therefore, it has laid down for its followers its political system under which comes the establishment of the Khilafa in a serious and complete manner, about which this article will be discussing.

All praise be to Allah, and prayers and peace be on the messenger of Allah and his family and companions and those who followed him. As for what follows,

So this is a concise treatise in which we shall mention the essentials factors of the Islamic Khilafa, and we shall show the invalidity of the so called Khilafa of Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi by mentioning twenty three points.

And here we present to you these points as follows:

The first point

Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi is not a Khalifa, and that is because the companions of the messenger of Allah ﷺ, are the role models for this Ummah whose examples should be emulated, and their guidance should be followed, and their concept of the Khilafa is bound by three different views and the so called Khilafa of Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi does not match any one of them. So here are the three different views as follows:

The first view:

It makes it a condition that all of the people altogether should gather and have agreement over one Imam for the Islamic Khilafa to be established as considered by some of the companions as stated by Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah page 111 about the pledge to Ali bin Abi Thaalib:

“And from amongst them were those who abstained (from giving bayah) until all the people gathered and agreed upon a leader like Sa’d, Saeed, Ibn Umar, Usama, Mugheerah, Abdullah ibn Salaam, Qudamah bin Ma’zoon, Abu Saeed Al Khudri, Ka’b ibn Ujra, Ka’b bin Maalik, Nu’man ibn Basheer, Hasaan bin Thaabith, Maslamah ibn Mukhallad, Fadhaalah ibn Ubaid, and other similar senior companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

And as for the so called Khilafa of Baghdadi, not even one tenth of the Ummah has agreed upon it, let alone its vast majority.

Imaam Shihabuddin says in “Al Arb Fee Funoon Al Adab“, page 161,

“Maalik ibn Ka’b Al Hamadani travelled to Daumat ul Jandal and asked its people to give pledge to Ali and they refused saying, “We will not give Bay’ah until the all of the people give Bay’ah”. So he turned away from them and left them”.

So Malik bin Ka’b Al Hamadani did not consider them to be Bughat (rebels) and he did not consider their refusal of Bay’ah as a refusal of something absolutely obligatory, and he did not say to them that you have rejected such and such Hadith, and that your death is a death of Jaahiliyyah (ignorance).

And let it be noted that they were a generation whose righteousness has been testified to, and the one who asked them to give Bay’ah was a companion himself, and the residents of Daumat ul Jandal were also from amongst the companions or the Tabi’yeen, and in addition to that, the Bay’ah was for Ali ibn Abi Thaalib. And what do you know who Ali ibn Abi Thaalib was!

But the people of Daumat ul Jandal stuck to their view that Ali bin Abi Thaalib is not an Imaam until all of the people gather under him.

The author of “Al Kaamil Fi Thaareekh” says, “They brought Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas may Allah be pleased with him, and Ali may Allah be pleased with him said to him, “Give Bay’ah”, and he replied saying ,”No, until all of the people give their Bay’ah”. And they brought Ibn Umar may Allah be pleased with him, and he said, “No, until all of the people give their Bay’ah”.

So they all abstained from giving Bay’ah until all of the people would give their Bay’ah. And neither did they consider themselves to be Bughat (rebels) nor did Ali consider them to be Bughat who rejected the religious obligation, and that the Hadiths which were conveyed, considered them such and such, and he never said to them that their death in this situation is a death of Jaahiliyah.

Muhammad Ali Al Sallabi says in his book “The Khilafa of Abdullah bin Zubair”, page 55,

“When Ibn Zubayr asked (for Bay’ah from) Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah and Ibn Abbas may Allah be pleased with them both, they said, “Not until the country is united under you and the people have agreed over you”.

So they did not consider that the announcement of the Khilafa of Abdullah bin Zubayr has taken place and that he has controlled many lands, and so their staying back from giving him Bay’ah is staying back from a religious obligation and a rejection of many Hadiths, and so on and so forth…..

But they believed that the unity of the whole country and the agreement of all the people is a condition for the establishment of the Khilafa in religion.

As for the so called Khilafa of Baghdadi, not even one tenth of the Jihadi community has agreed upon it, let alone the Ummah as a whole. So how can his Khilafa be right? And how can the one who does not agree to it be considered a rebel?

The second view:

Agreement of all the people of Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd is a condition for the establishment of the Khilafa in religion, as mentioned by Ibn Khaldun in Vol.1, page 111:

“When Uthman got martyred, the people were scattered throughout the lands and did not witness the Bay’ah given to Ali. And among those who witnessed it, some of them gave their Bay’ah and the others withheld from it saying, “We will not give Bay’ah until the people have united under one Imam” as we have just mentioned. And the others considered that no Bay’ah has been made because the companions who were Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd were scattered in different lands and none except a few of them were present. And no Bay’ah can take place except with the agreement of Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd. And any dealing made by others or a few of them is not a binding contract.

And this view was adopted by Muawiya, Amru ibn Al Aas, Ummul Mu’mineen Ayisha, Zubayr and his son Abdullah, Talha and his son Muhammad, Sa’d, Sa’eed, Nu’man bin Basheer, Muawiya ibn Khudaij and those companions who followed their opinion and abstained from giving Bay’ah to Ali while in Medina.

The third view:

Agreement of the majority of the Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd is a condition for establishment of the Khilafa according to a group of Sahaba. And the Khilafa of Ali was set up based on this third approach. And that is because the majority of the Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd had given him their Bay’ah while the Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd were dispersed throughout the lands after the murder of Uthman, and not all of them were present. However the majority of them were present and they gave their Bay’ah as stated by Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah:

“As for the incident of Ali, the people at the time of Uthman’s killing were scattered across various lands, and they did not witness the Bay’ah given to Ali. And amongst those of them who witnessed it, there were those who gave him Bay’ah”.

And those of them who witnessed and gave Bay’ah to Ali were a large number of them as mentioned by the author of “Al Intisaar Fee Radd Alal Mu’tazila Al Qadriyya”, vol. 3 page 90, “The Bay’ah to Ali, and his leadership were supported by the majority of the companions before that, and they followed him and he gained power by their obedience to him”.

Sheikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah says in “Shubuhaat Hawl As Sahaabah”, page 11,

“The people of influence pledged their allegiance to Ali even though they did not unite under him the way they united under those who were before, but there is no doubt that he had authority and strength due to the support of the people of influence”.

So it can be known from this analysis and investigation that the stances of the Sahabah towards the Khilafa are divided based upon three different viewpoints which are:

1)      The agreement of the entire Ummah

2)      The agreement of the entire Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd

3)      The agreement of the majority of the Ahlul Wal Aqd

So the so called Khilafa of Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi has not been agreed upon by the Ummah as a whole, nor by  the Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd as a whole, nor by the majority of the Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd, while the Ahlul Hal Wal Aqd, as we will explain later in complete detail, is a term for the people of influence in the Ummah from the scholars and the leaders.

And none from the people of influence in the Ummah who are referred to from amongst the scholars and leaders throughout the world have given Bay’ah to Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi, other than the advisory group of ISIS who took him as a Khalifa. And the advisory group of his organization are not the people of influence of the Ummah who are depended upon and referred to.

Translated by Al Muwahideen Media

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