Tawhid al-Asma’ was-Sifaat

We single Him, the Glorified, out in His names and attributes. So, there is no equal, no similitude, no resemblance, no equal and no likeness unto Him, the Glorified:

“Say, He is Allah the One. Allah as-Samad [free of all wants]. He begets not, nor is He begotten, and there is none like unto Him.” [al-Ikhlas]

He, the Glorified is singled out with the attributes of glory and completion that He has described Himself with in His Book, or what His Prophet [sallallahu alayhi was sallam] described Him with in his Sunnah. So we do not attribute anyone from His creation with anything of His attributes nor do we derive [names] for him [that person] from His names, we strike no similitude for Him, the Glorified or resemble Him with any of the creation- nor do we deviate [by denial] in the names of our Lord the Glorified.

Rather, we believe in what He described Himself with and what His Messenger, [alayhis salatu was salam] described Him with- in reality and not figuratively- without distortion, denial, asking ‘how’, or resembling.

“To Him belongs the highest example in the heavens and the earth and He is al-‘Azîz [the Almighty] al-Hakîm [the Most Wise].” [ar-Rûm 27]

We do not negate anything from Him of what He, the Glorified has described Himself with. We do not change a word from its proper place, nor do we enter into that while interpreting things with our opinions or bringing absurdities from our imaginations using Tanzîh [declaring Allah free from all imperfections and deficiencies] as an evidence [in support of that].

No one has found salvation in His Deen save the one who has submitted to Allah the Mighty the Sublime and His Messenger [alayhis salatu was salam] and relegated the knowledge of that which is unclear to him to the one who knows it. The foothold on Islam is not established for anyone save on the basis of submission and surrender-so whoever delves into the knowledge of what he has been warned about and was not contented with surrendering his understanding, then his actions will veil him from correct Imân and pure Tawhîd.

And we believe that Allah revealed His Book with clear Arabic speech, so we do not do Tafwîd [to affirm the attribute but claim that no one knows what it is but Allah] of the meanings of the attributes rather we only do Tafwîd of the ‘how’ and we say:

“We have believed in it. It is all from our Lord.” [al-Imrân 7]

And we declare our disavowal and freedom in front of Allah from the denial of the Jahmiyyah and the resemblance of the Mushabbihah [those who resembled Allah with His creation]-so we do not incline to either these or those, nay, we stand firmly and in the middle just as our Lord wanted- [we stand] between negation and affirmation for He, the Glorified:

“Nothing is like unto Him and He is the All Hearing, the All Seeing.” [ash-Shûrâ 11].

Therefore, whoever was not on guard against denial and resemblance then he will slip and not achieve actual Tanzîh.

In this area [of creed] – just as in all of the other areas-we are upon what our pious predecessors, Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamâ’ah were upon.

From that [creed], [there] is what Allah informed [us] of in His Book and what was reported from numerous routes of transmission from His Messenger [alayhis salatu was salam] that He is above His heavens, Risen above the Throne as the Most High said:

“Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, then behold it shakes (as in an earthquake)?” [al-Mulk 16].

And as is reported in the Hadîth of the slave girl that the Prophet [alayhis salatu was salam] asked: “Where is Allah?” and she said: “In the heavens.” So He asked: “ Who am I?” She replied: “You are the Messenger of Allah.” He said: “Free her, for indeed she is a believer.”– And this is the truth in which there is no doubt.

With that however, we guard it just as our pious predecessors guarded it from false conjectures – for example, that it is imagined that the heavens shade Him or confines Him, for this indeed is false. We have been compelled to mention this, negate it and declare Allah free from it-and if the Salaf were never actually faced with [negating] that the people of innovation and their false implications would annoy and be a nuisance to Ahlus Sunnah-

For the Most High said:

His Kursi extends over the heavens and earth.” [al-Baqarah 255]

And He the Glorified said:

“Indeed, Allah holds the heavens and the earth lest they cease.” [Fatir 41]

“He restrains the sky from falling upon the earth, unless by His permission.” [al-Hajj 65]

“And from His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command.” [Rûm 25]

And we believe that He, the Glorified, is risen above His throne, as the Most High said:

“The Most Merciful rose above the throne.” [TaHa 5]

We do not interpret Istiwâ [rising] to mean conquering- on the contrary, it is upon its meaning in the language of the Arabs that Allah send the Qur’ân with. We do not liken the rising to the rising of any of His creation, rather, we say as Imâm Mâlik said: “Istiwâ is known, Imân in it is obligatory. The ‘how’ is unknown and asking about it is an innovation.”

And it is in this manner that we pass on the rest of His attributes and actions, the Glorified and Most High such as; descending, coming and other [actions and attributes] that He, the Glorified has informed us of in His Book or what has been affirmed in the
authentic Sunnah.

And we believe that along with his Istiwâ over the throne and His Highness above His heavens, the Glorified the Most High [we believe] that He is close to His slaves as the Glorified said:

“And if My slaves ask concerning Me, then indeed I am Close.” [al-Baqarah 186]

And in the agreed upon Hadith:

“Oh people! Have mercy upon yourselves, for verily you are not calling upon One that is deaf or that is absent-nay, you are calling upon One that is All Hearing, All Seeing. Indeed, the one whom you are calling is closer to you than the neck of his riding animal.”

He is with His slaves wherever they are and He knows what they are doing – as the Most High said:

“ And He is with you wherever you may be and Allah is All Seeing of what you do.” [Al-Hadîd 4]

It is not to be understood from His words: “He is with you” the intent of the heretics [stating] that He is mixed with His creation, or that He has merged in some of them or united with them or anything else of the beliefs of Kufr and misguidance-nay, we
declare ourselves free unto Allah from all of that.

And He, the Glorified has with His believing slaves another Ma’iyyah [‘with’] that is not the general Ma’iyyah and it is the Ma’iyyah of victory, granting success, and correctness-as is in His statement, the Most High:

“Indeed, Allah is with those who observe Taqwâ and those who are good doers.” [an-Nahl 128]

So He, the Glorified, along with his Istiwâ over His throne and His ascendancy above His heavens, He is with His slaves wherever they may be and He knows what they do. He, the Glorified, is close to the one that supplicates to Him and He is with His believing slaves; He protects them, aids them and assists them-so His closeness- the Glorified, and His Ma’iyyah does not negate His ascendancy and highness for there is none like unto Him in His attributes, the Glorified. He is High in His closeness, Close in His highness.

From the fruits of this tremendous Tawhîd that is the right of Allah over His slaves is:

The success of the Muwahhid [the one who singles out Allah in Tawhîd] by the Paradise of His Lord and salvation from the Fire as is in the Hadîth of Mu’âdh ibn Jabal. From it also is the Glorification of the Lord and magnification of Him by knowing His attributes of perfection and nobility. [Also from it] is glorifying Him and declaring Him far removed from any similitude or likeness. [As well as] knowing the foolishness of those who took equals with Him, associating them as partners in worship, judgment, or legislation. And [knowing] the lowliness and worthlessness of those that took themselves as partners in anything of that even though they did not take [themselves] as partners in the creation, nor do they possess any portion of dominion, provision, or disposal of affairs.

And it is from that; the heart and the soul become free from the bondage of the creation. [And] from that, the slave finds firmness in the life of this world and in the hereafter. Hence, the one who used to worship varying partners-invoking them and

dividing his fear and hope among them-this one is not like the one who singled out His Lord, the Glorified and devoted his fear, hope, intent, purpose, and worship to Him. Oh Allah, Oh Protecting Friend of Islâm and its people, make us firm upon Your Tawhîd until we meet You.

Sheikh Abu Muhammad Al Maqdisi

“This is our Aqeedah”

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